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At one point, five stone walls ringed it, making the city practically impregnable.
A local school of icon-painting flourished, and the local masons were considered the best in Russia.
As a consequence, the city's importance and well-being declined dramatically, although it has served as a seat of separate Pskov Governorate since 1777.
During World War I, Pskov became the center of much activity behind the lines.
"It's amazing how the city reminds me of Paris", wrote one of the Frenchmen present at Báthory's siege.
Peter the Great's conquest of Estonia and Latvia during the Great Northern War in the early 18th century spelled the end of Pskov's traditional role as a vital border fortress and a key to Russia's interior.
Its medieval citadel is called either the Krom or the Kremlin.
Population: Pskovians sometimes take this year as the city's foundation date, and in 2003 a great jubilee took place to celebrate Pskov's 1,100th anniversary.
Many peculiar features of Russian architecture were first introduced in Pskov.
The deportation of noble families to Moscow is a subject of Rimsky-Korsakov's opera Pskovityanka (1872).
He personally ceded most of his responsibilities to a democratically elected municipal duma and focused on both cultural and economical recovery of the war-impoverished city.
He also put an end to censorship of press and allowed for creation of several socialist associations and newspapers.
The importance of the city made it the subject of numerous sieges throughout its history.